China’s unprecedented economic, scientific, and technological growth in the recent years has made the entire world sit up and take notice. Today it is deemed to be an emerging superpower that is likely to surpass even the U.S. in terms of research output and even research investment in the coming years. However, in the late 20th century and early 21st century, the situation was significantly different. Chinese students and researchers found scarce opportunities to pursue a career in science and research, and found Western countries, particularly the U.S., more promising. As a result, mass migration of young Chinese talent in search of better career choices, more funding, and advanced resources was fairly common.