Q: Can two papers with same data but different analysis be considered duplicate publication?
I have two papers: both have the same basic data, and the results have some similarity. However, the depth of data analysis are totally different: one paper goes 50% deeper at least than the other one. Is it still duplicate publication?
It's hard to say without actually going through the papers whether they can be regarded as duplicate publications. However, generally speaking, if each paper has a different focus and studies the data from completely different angles, it might be acceptable to publish two different papers using the same data. However, if it's just about the depth of data analysis, it might be considered salami slicing, if not duplicate publication. Salami slicing refers to the practice of partitioning a large study that could have been reported in a single research article into smaller published articles. A set of papers are referred to as salami publications when more than one paper covers the same data, methods, and research question. The data and methods section can be similar, but you have to make sure that you have a new research question and that all the other sections of the paper - the literature review, discussion, analysis of the findings - are completely different.