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Tips for writing the perfect IMRAD manuscript

To ensure that your manuscript conveys your ideas effectively, it is essential for you to structure it well. Many journals expect scientific research papers to be written in the traditional format, which is also referred to as the IMRaD format (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, and Discussion). Here, I will cover some quick tips on writing each of the IMRaD sections to help you ensure that your manuscript communicates your research effectively. 


The Introduction of your research paper should clearly explain what you are studying and why. It is important for you to set context for your study, too. Your readers need to understand what you are trying to say. Use general language in this section and develop your ideas logically to build the story behind your study.

Materials and Methods

The Methods section should include what you did and how you went about conducting your research. A research that is well conducted should be replicable. Any other researcher should be able to reproduce the results you achieved by following the methods you have detailed in your manuscript. Read this article for more tips on how to write the Introduction and Materials and Methods sections of your manuscript.

Results and Discussion

The Results section indicates whether you were able to solve the problem you outlined in the introduction. It is essential to include complete details along with data in this section. Highlighting the most significant findings or organizing them into sections will ensure that you have covered all the relevant information.

The Discussion section is also closely tied to the Introduction. Research does not end with conducting a study and extracting results. The implications and meaning of your findings also need to be discussed in order to understand the impact your research has had. Read this article for more tips on writing an effective Results and Discussion section.


The Conclusion should state the primary conclusions of your study with regard to the problem you started out with. In short, write what you learned through your study here. In the case of some research fields or topics of study, it is essential to include an explanation of how and why you arrived at the present conclusion.

To ensure that your reader (including the journal editor and reviewer) is able to understand the full implications of your work, ensure that your manuscript is well-structured and that each of the IMRaD elements is clearly written and organized.

For an interesting analogy about the five sections of a paper, read this article.


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