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Academic Writing

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It is rare for a single researcher to publish a paper all by herself or himself; most research papers have several or many authors, and the average number of authors for…
Using "et al." for in-text citations in research papers
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In general, p values tell readers only whether any difference between groups, relationship, etc., is likely to be due to chance or to the variable(s) you are studying…
The correct way to report p values
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Scientific writing often uses a few Latin phrases, either abbreviated (etc. for et cetera and et al. for et alii) or spelt out (in vitro, in vivo, in situ). Should they…
Latin phrases in scientific writing: italics or not
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Although English uses an elaborate system of tenses, simple past and simple present are the most common tenses in research papers, supplemented by present perfect and…
Using past and present tenses in research writing
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Novice researchers are often discouraged from using the first person pronouns I and we in their writing, and the most common reason given for…
Is it acceptable to use first person pronouns in scientific writing?
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When writing a research paper, you have to consider several matters of style. This article discusses the use of abbreviations and numbers in academic writing. …
Scientific writing: Avoid starting sentences with a number or abbreviation
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The use of figures and tables as adjuncts to text is common in research papers. These adjuncts supplement the text: figures, for example, can convey information that may…
Avoid instructions such as "See Table 2" and "Refer to Figure 6"
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In a list of bullet points, whether each item begins with a capital letter depends on the punctuation mark that comes before the item. A capital letter typically marks…
Scientific writing: Tips on capitalization in bullet point lists
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When writing a research paper, authors may feel confused about the use of certain words. This article explains the difference between the commonly confusing words - "e.g…
Scientific writing: Difference between "e.g.," "i.e.," and "namely"
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Among the many ways in which journals differ in the way, they expect authors to format references is the way names of journals are given: whether spelled out in full or…