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Is a space necessary before and after the sign of equality/inequality?

Which format is preferable in the following example?

p = 0.05、p=0.05、p =0.05

p < 0.01、p<0.01、p <0.01

n = 100、n=100、n =100

11.0 < Hb < 14.0、11.0<Hb<14.0、11.0 <Hb <14.0、11.0< Hb <14.0

My supervisors have differing opinions on this, and every time I have to spend time for making these corrections. It affects the number of the words also, so I am troubled when creating the abstract with a restriction on the number of words. Is there a common rule for use of space before and after the sign of equality/inequality?

As per the AMA Manual of Style, a single space should be used before and after the signs of equality and inequality. So, if you submit your paper to a journal that follows the AMA style guide, you can adhere to this rule. Thus, in the examples you have provided, the first option would be preferable.

p = 0.05

p < 0.01

n = 100

11.0 < Hb < 14.0

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