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Grammar & Language

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It is rare for a single researcher to publish a paper all by herself or himself; most research papers have several or many authors, and the average number of authors for…
Using "et al." for in-text citations in research papers
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Although English uses an elaborate system of tenses, simple past and simple present are the most common tenses in research papers, supplemented by present perfect and…
Using past and present tenses in research writing
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Novice researchers are often discouraged from using the first person pronouns I and we in their writing, and the most common reason given for…
Is it acceptable to use first person pronouns in scientific writing?
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When writing a research paper, you have to consider several matters of style. This article discusses the use of abbreviations and numbers in academic writing. …
Scientific writing: Avoid starting sentences with a number or abbreviation
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When writing a research paper, authors may feel confused about the use of certain words. This article explains the difference between the commonly confusing words - "e.g…
Scientific writing: Difference between "e.g.," "i.e.," and "namely"
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The active voice refers to a sentence format that emphasizes the doer of an action. For example, in the sentence “The mice inhaled the tobacco-infused aerosol,” the doer…
Using the active and passive voice in research writing
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Many authors struggle with the usage of tenses in their research paper. This post discusses tense usage in specific sections of the manuscript to help authors write with…
Getting the tenses right: Materials and methods section
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Many English-second language authors find it quite difficult to write concisely because they cannot find appropriate words to substitute long phrases. In fact,…
10 Tips to reduce the length of your research paper
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Constructions like ‘the data reveal that’, ‘Table 1 shows that’, or ‘Figure 2 indicates that’ are common in research papers. But do you…
Scientific writing: Difference between "to reveal," "to show," and "to indicate"
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Using such expressions as “for example,” “for instance,” and “including” correctly is important. This article explains these terms and how to use them appropriately…